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2014 (Vol. 7, Issue: 14)
Article Information:

Radiological and Toxic Risk Assessment of Nigerian Kohl as Cosmetic Compared with Imported Kohl Cosmetics

I.Y. Zakari, A.M. Sadiq, R. Nasiru and U. Sadiq
Corresponding Author:  I.Y. Zakari 

Key words:  EDXRF, eye, kohl, proportional counter, radiation disease, toxic elements,
Vol. 7 , (14): 2970-2975
Submitted Accepted Published
September 16, 2013 October 04, 2013 April 12, 2014

A total of 38 different samples of Kohl comprising of 23 indigenous mined products and 15 imported products as control and were analyzed for general elemental composition but with particular interest in those reported to be of relevance (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Co and Sb) in cosmetics. Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis EDXRA was used for the assay. Only Pb, As, Ni and Cr were detected among the elements of interest. Mean Pb concentrations of 277300 ppm; Ni at 2256 ppm concentration; and As at 810 ppm which are considerably higher than their safety limits (20 ppm p<0.01) were obtained in both the indigenous and imported products. The same risk was statistically observed to be involved following the use of both local and imported kohl products. Again Pb concentrations in excess of what was claimed on the labels of the imported kohl products were observed (p<0.01), hence the need for scrutiny of imported products by the relevant agency. The high concentration of Cr (7460 ppm, p<0.05) in the imported samples signifies its presence as colorant and the need for chromium control for the brands concerned. Also the observed presence of Th in the indigenous (local) samples suggests that Nigerian products may be of radiological effect to health. Measurements were made of gross alpha and beta count of indigenous mined and imported kohl samples The results reveals that all the forms of kohl products assayed, emit both particles but with &beta’s count substantially higher than the α’s (p<0.5) at a mean &beta count 4695×10-3 cpm and &alpha count as 283×10-3 cpm. One of the samples from Zamfara State of Nigeria (known for Pb poisoning due to mining activities) shows an exceptionally high count in both &alph = 8998100 cpm and &beta = 9315700 cpm which reveals that products from Zamfara State, need a special attention. Application of this product is therefore very much likely to produce radiation damage to the cornea due to low penetration of &alph and to the internal tissue of the eye due to the relatively high penetration of &beta s. However, the non-existence of defined safety limits for these particles in Kohl as cosmetic, suggests the need for further research.
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  Cite this Reference:
I.Y. Zakari, A.M. Sadiq, R. Nasiru and U. Sadiq, 2014. Radiological and Toxic Risk Assessment of Nigerian Kohl as Cosmetic Compared with Imported Kohl Cosmetics.  Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 7(14): 2970-2975.
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ISSN (Online):  2040-7467
ISSN (Print):   2040-7459
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