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2012 (Vol. 1, Issue: 2)
Article Information:

Effects of Water Pollution on Benthic Macro Fauna Species Composition in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

1J.F.N. Abowei, 2E.N. Ezekiel and 3U. Hansen
Corresponding Author:  J.F.N. Abowei 

Key words:  Benthic macro fauna species composition, effects, Koluama area, Niger delta, Nigeria, water pollution,
Vol. 1 , (2): 140-146
Submitted Accepted Published
June 28, 2012 August 28, 2012 October 20, 2012
Abstract:

The effects of water pollution on benthic macrofauna species composition in Koluama Area of Niger Delta in Nigeria was studied to create awareness of the consequences of water pollution. A total of seven sampling stations were established: Foroupa (N4 36.004 E5 39.128); Ekeni (N4 41.659 E5 34.451); Ezetu 2(N4 43.333 E5 34.640); Kuluama 1(N4 28 433 E5 46.248); Kuluama 2 (N4 25.805 E5 49.582); Fish Town (N4 24.642 E5 51.128) and Ikebiri fishing port (N4 30.374 E5 50.298). Replicate samples were collected and the mean used for further analysis. The benthic samples for the analysis of benthic organism were collected using an Eckman grab of 10 cm diameter and 12 cm long. Three hauls were made at each sampling station by sending the grab down into the bottom and using the messenger to close and grab some quantity of sediment. The benthic samples were collected from each station. The remaining benthic samples were washed through 1 1 mm mesh size to collect the benthic organisms. The washed sediment with macro-invertebrates were poured into a wide mouth labeled plastic container and preserved with 10% formalin solution to which Rose Bengal (dye) had been added. The Rose Bengal dye strength was 0.1% selectivity colored all the living organisms in the sample. The preserved samples were taken to the laboratory for further analysis. A total of 383 species belonging to four major taxonomic groupings were recorded. These groupings and their percentage contribution to the total macro-benthic collection are Crustaceans (48%), Polychaetes (35%) and Gastropod Moluscs (12%) Bivalve Molluscs (5%). Density of benthos fluctuated between 36 (SW/SD 5) and 118 (SW/SD C2) while species count per station was 9 in SW/SD 5 and 21 in SW/SD C2. Twentyeight species belonging to 14 families, 6 classes and 3 phyla of macro-invertebrates were recorded in the study area. The faunal composition was dominated by polychates with 13 species from 7 families (46.4%) in terms of the species richness. Oligochaeta had 2 families and 7 species (25%), Bivalvia had 1 family and 3 species (10.7%). Crustacea was represented by 2 families and 2 species, Gastropoda had one family 2 species and insecta had 1 family and one species constituting 7.2, 7.2 and 3.6% of the species richness respectively. The diversity of benthic macro-invertebrates in the study area in the stations was generally low. Polychaete was dominant in the brackish water station (Degema). This may be attributed to their level of pollution tolerance. The numerical numbers of the individual species recorded in this study were high. This suggests that the mud flat of station the study area is grossly polluted.
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  Cite this Reference:
1J.F.N. Abowei, 2E.N. Ezekiel and 3U. Hansen, 2012. Effects of Water Pollution on Benthic Macro Fauna Species Composition in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria.  International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1(2): 140-146.
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ISSN (Online):  2049-842X
ISSN (Print):   2049-8411
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