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2010 (Vol. 2, Issue: 4)
Article Information:

Rabies Vaccines: Its Role, Challenges, Considerations and Implications for the Global Control and Possible Eradication of Rabies

I.O. Okonko, O.D. Eyarefe, A.O. Adedeji, M.O. Ojezele, E. Donbraye, I. Shittu, J.A. Alli and O.G. Adewale
Corresponding Author:  Okonko Iheanyi Omezuruike 

Key words:  Elimination, global control, possible eradication, rabies vaccines, vaccination , ,
Vol. 2 , (4): Page No: 104-129
Submitted Accepted Published
2010 February, 07 2010 February, 24 2010 October, 15
Abstract:

This review reports on the rabies vaccines: Its role, considerations and implications for the global control and possible eradication of rabies. Attempts to control human rabies have a long history; animal and human vaccines provide efficient weapons for prevention. Vaccines are one of the m ost effective public health interventions. Vaccines are the basis of the medical and veterinary medical future. Rabies vaccine is made from killed rabies virus. Rabies vaccine can prevent rabies. It is offered to people at high risk of exposure. The primary intention of vaccine is to produce stimulation to the cellular immune system, via the production of antibodies. Methods for Rabies Virus (RABV) manipulation have changed fundamentally from random attenuation to defined modifications. In 2001, WHO issued a resolution for the complete replacement of nerve tissue vaccines by 2006 with cell-culture rabies vaccines? In recent years, purified and concentrated Vero cell rabies vaccines using the 3aG and CTN-1 strains have been developed. The Purified Vero Rabies Vaccines (PVRV), is also being developed to meet the increasing demand for human rabies vaccine. However, for animals, all fixed RABV strains recommended by WHO, such as PVRV, Challenge Virus Standard (CVS), Flury-Low Egg Passage (LEP), High Egg Passage (HEP), Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA), and SAD variants, have been successfully used in industrialized countries, where rabies is well controlled. Any potent rabies vaccine will protect against rabies. A vaccine, like any medicine, is capable of causing serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions, though the risk of causing serious harm, or death, is extremely small and very rare. As international concerns increased, several corrective actions have been implemented in many countries since 2005, which aimed at improving vaccination protocols and a consistent vaccination strategy aiming to eliminate the residual focus. However, we should bear in mind that vaccination is still the key to prevent rabies in small animals and transmission to human beings. It is hoped that the various strategies, well coordinated and corrective actions and initiatives for global control of rabies, to make important contributions in stemming the magnitudes, roles and implications of vaccines for global control and possible eradication of rabies and other rabies-related viruses which poses threat to global public health.
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  Cite this Reference:
I.O. Okonko, O.D. Eyarefe, A.O. Adedeji, M.O. Ojezele, E. Donbraye, I. Shittu, J.A. Alli and O.G. Adewale, 2010. Rabies Vaccines: Its Role, Challenges, Considerations and Implications for the Global Control and Possible Eradication of Rabies.  International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 2(4): Page No: 104-129.
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