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2010 (Vol. 1, Issue: 1)
Article Information:

Incidence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Organisms in Some Poultry Feeds Sold in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria

I.O. Okonko, A.O. Nkang, O.D. Eyarefe, M.J. Abubakar, M.O. Ojezele and T.A. Amusan
Corresponding Author:  Okonko Iheanyi Omezuruike 

Key words:  Antibiotics, calabar metropolis, multi-drug resistance, susceptibility profile, poultry feeds, Nigeria,
Vol. 1 , (1): Page No: 15-28
Submitted Accepted Published
2010 April, 19 2010 May, 01 2010 June, 20
Abstract:

This study reports on the incidence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) organisms in poultry feeds sold in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria. Twenty samples of poultry feeds were purchased from different locations and analyzed microbiologically using standard methods. Significant enough to note is the microbial loads of these poultry feeds, which were quite high 1.232 x 109cfu/g (Top feeds) and 1.03 x 108cfu/g (Vitals feeds). Eight bacteria isolates were obtained and identified as Bacillus sp. [3(15.0%)], Escherichia coli [2(10.0%)], Nocardia sp. [2(10.0%)], Salmonella sp. [3(15.0% )], Proteus mirabilis [2(10.0% )], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [4(20.0%)], Staphylococcus aureus [2(10.0%)], and Streptococcus pyogenes [2(10.0%)]. The antibiotics susceptibility profile showed that S. aureus and S. pyogenes were more susceptible (75%) to the test antibiotics, followed by E. coli (72.7% ), Nocardia sp. (58.3%) and Proteus mirabilis (54.5% ). All gram-positive isolates were resistant to ampiclox (100%) and sensitive to streptomycin and ciprocin (100%) while all gram negative isolates were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin (100% ). However, all isolates satisfied the most common multidrug resistance patterns (>3 antibiotics resistant). Generally, significantly higher number of multidrugresistant Pseudomonas [10(90.1%)], Bacillus sp. [9(83.3%)], Salmonella sp. [8(72.7%)], P. mirabilis [5(45.5%)], and Nocardia sp. [5(41.7% )] were noted in this study. Low resistance rates was observed for E. coli [3(27.3%)], S. aureus and S. pyogenes [3(25%)] was found in the poultry feeds. The MIC values of tetracycline of the isolates ranged from 0.13-8.00 mcg/ml. Among all the test organisms only S. aureus (25%) was susceptible to tetracycline at an MIC value of 0.13 mcg/ml. This showed that 75% of the bacterial species exhibited an MIC value of 0.25-8.00 mcg/ml. To reduce the effect of these MDR organisms in poultry feeds; antibiotics incorporated into feeds should be in synergistic combinations, as this will prevent the possibility of resistance development. The findings of this study confirm the presence of multi-drug resistant organisms in animal feeds sold in N igeria. It significantly points to the great need to evaluate and monitor the incidence rate of multi-drugs (antibiotics) resistant organisms in poultry feeds.
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  Cite this Reference:
I.O. Okonko, A.O. Nkang, O.D. Eyarefe, M.J. Abubakar, M.O. Ojezele and T.A. Amusan, 2010. Incidence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Organisms in Some Poultry Feeds Sold in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria.  British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1(1): Page No: 15-28.
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