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2014 (Vol. 5, Issue: 2)
Article Information:

Toxicity Study, Phytochemical Characterization and Anti-parasitic Efficacy of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Sclerocarya birrea against Plasmodium berghei and Salmonella typhi

Gabi Baba, A.A.J. Adewumi and Saudatu Ahmed Jere
Corresponding Author:  Gabi Baba 

Key words:  FTRI, in-vivo, in-vitro , LD50, Plasmodium berghei, Salmonella typhi, Sclerocarya birrea
Vol. 5 , (2): 59-67
Submitted Accepted Published
July 25, 2013 December 20, 2013 April 20, 2014
Abstract:

In screening drugs, determination of it toxicity is usually part of the initial step in their assessment and evaluation, phytochemical constituents and their isolation can subsequently be determine. Sclerocarya birrea is a plant employed ethno medicinally in the treatment of different parasitic infection such as malaria. This study examine the anti-malarial and antibacterial activity of plant leaf extracts against Plasmodium berghei using Swiss albino mice in-vivo and Salmonella typhi isolates. Also acute toxicity (LD50 as the index), phytochemical screening and FTIR characterization of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of the plant were conducted. The LD50 was based on Lorke’s method using mice, while phytochemical screening and FTIR characterization based on the routine procedures. The results indicated that LD50 of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 566 and 800 mg/kg body weight, (intra-peritoneal), respectively. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, Anthraquinones in the Free State, Carbohydrate (Reducing sugar) and Flavonoids. Also present include Phlobatanins, saponins, tannins and terpenoids all of which are detected in both extracts. However, Cardiac Glycoside and steroids are only detected in the aqueous extract. FTIR spectroscopy indicted the presence of functional groups such as C-H,C = O and O-H, indicating the peaks for alkanes, alcohols, aromatics and Carboxylic acid, While C-O-C,C-C(O)-C, C-N, C-I, N-H indicated the peak for ether, ester, Amine, amide, aldehyde and (alkyl halide). P = O (Phosphine oxide) and C = C (conjugate) (Alkene) also indicated in the extracts. Ethanolic extract is characterize with certain peculiar functional groups such as C-C(O)-C, C-O-C, C-H bend and C-H stretch relating to ethers, esters, aromatics and aldehyde/ketones. The mice were grouped according to their weights and the extracts administered curatively against Plasmodium berghei based on standard procedures. The research finding shows that both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Sclerocarya birrea was 100% effective against Plasmodium berghei aqueous and ethanol extract of Sclerocarya birrea showed an MIC of 3×10-4 mg/mL and 4×10-4 mg/mL, respectively; while both extracts were found to have the same MBC of 4×10mg/mL. The values of their MIC and MBC prove promising in further antibacterial research breakthrough.
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  Cite this Reference:
Gabi Baba, A.A.J. Adewumi and Saudatu Ahmed Jere, 2014. Toxicity Study, Phytochemical Characterization and Anti-parasitic Efficacy of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Sclerocarya birrea against Plasmodium berghei and Salmonella typhi .  British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 5(2): 59-67.
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ISSN (Online):  2044-2467
ISSN (Print):   2044-2459
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