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    Abstract
2011 (Vol. 2, Issue: 6)
Article Information:

Biochemical and Histological Studies of Aqueous Extract of Bidens pilosa Leaves from Ugandan Rift Valley in Rats

J.O.C. Ezeonwumelu, A.K. Julius, C.N. Muhoho, A.M. Ajayi, A.A. Oyewale, J.K. Tanayen, S.O. Balogun, A. Ibrahim, B. Adzu, C.P. Adiukwu, J. Oloro, D.M. Kiplagat, A.D.T. Goji, A.G. Okoruwa, A.N. Onchweri and P.M.K. Reddy
Corresponding Author:  J.O.C. Ezeonwumelu 

Key words:  Acute toxicity, Bidens pilosa, phytochemicals, sub-chronic toxicity, tissues, Uganda,
Vol. 2 , (6): 302-309
Submitted Accepted Published
2011 September, 02 2011 October, 24 2011 December, 20
Abstract:

Bidens pilosa, a member of the Asteraceae family, is one of the dominant medicinal plant species worldwide including Uganda. This study aimed at assessing both acute and sub-chronic toxicities of Bidens pilosa Leaves Extract (BPLE). Phytochemical tests were done on BPLE to detect the presence of secondary metabolites. In acute toxicity test, a single oral dose of BPLE (500-10,000 mg/kg) was used on each group of Wistar rats. For sub-chronic toxicity study, BPLE (200-800 mg/kg) and distilled water were orally administered daily for 28 days. Signs of toxicity were observed and rats sacrificed, blood and organs collected for biochemical and histological studies. The BPLE was found to contain tannins, flavonoids, phlobatannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. No mortality was recorded during the studies in rats. There was a general reduction in mean percentage body weight gain of test rats compared with control; statistically significant (p<0.05) between 400 mg/kg and control and between 400 and 800 mg/kg. Significant increments in mean relative organ weight of the heart occurred between control and 400 mg/kg groups. There were significant (p<0.05) increases in the serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT) enzymes at dose of 800 mg/kg and of cardiac Creatine Kinase (CKMB) at all three doses when compared with the control. Light micrograph of the liver, kidney and heart tissues at 400 magnifications appeared normal with no changes. It can be concluded that BPLE from the Rift Valley Region of Western Uganda contains secondary metabolites and has high index of safety.
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  Cite this Reference:
J.O.C. Ezeonwumelu, A.K. Julius, C.N. Muhoho, A.M. Ajayi, A.A. Oyewale, J.K. Tanayen, S.O. Balogun, A. Ibrahim, B. Adzu, C.P. Adiukwu, J. Oloro, D.M. Kiplagat, A.D.T. Goji, A.G. Okoruwa, A.N. Onchweri and P.M.K. Reddy, 2011. Biochemical and Histological Studies of Aqueous Extract of Bidens pilosa Leaves from Ugandan Rift Valley in Rats.  British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2(6): 302-309.
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