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    Abstract
2011 (Vol. 2, Issue: 6)
Article Information:

Phytochemical, Chromatographic and Antimicrobial Studies of the Ethanolic Extract of the Stem Bark of Pentaclethra macrophylla (African Oil Bean Tree)

O.B. Idonije, E.C. Asika, O.O. Okhiai and I.N. Nweke
Corresponding Author:  O.B. Idonije 

Key words:  Chromatography, ethanolic, flavoniods, metabolites, minimum inhibitory concentration, ,
Vol. 2 , (6): 283-289
Submitted Accepted Published
2011 May, 21 2011 July, 18 2011 December, 20
Abstract:

We investigated the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Pentaclethra macroptyla for the presence of several metabolic and antimicrobial activities and also trial runs were carried out to detect a solvent system suitable for fractionation of the compounds present in the plant. Extraction was by the method of cold maceration land evaporation and by a vacuum evap orator to get the dried concentrate. The following compounds were present after the photochemical analysis: tannins alkaloids, glycosides, cyanogenicglycosides, phenols and saponins. The antimicrobial studies included sensitivity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The organisms used include: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus nigger and Candida albicans. Chloramphenicol was used as the standard drug and compared with the extract. The sensitivity test showed that Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii and Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to the extract. Aspergillus nigger and Candida albicans were not susceptible. The MIC result of the extract showed the least MIC value of 0.4467 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The result for Bacillus subtilus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus were: 1.0471, 3.1189, 0.6309 and 3.1189, respectively. The Chromatographic studies carried out were to detect a suitable solvent system that can be used to carry out further studies on the plant extract. The solvent system determined for the plant extract in this study is ethylacetate: Ethanol solution in a ratio of 9:1. With this result fractionation process of the plant extract was made easier. The findings of the present study justify the use of Pentaclethra macrophylla in the treatment of various forms of infections. The ethanol extract may possess a degree of broad spectrum antibiotic activities. The Phytochemical constituents may be contributing to this effect. Further work is recommended to verify the therapeutic merits of the active constituents and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action responsible for the antimicrobial activity.
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  Cite this Reference:
O.B. Idonije, E.C. Asika, O.O. Okhiai and I.N. Nweke, 2011. Phytochemical, Chromatographic and Antimicrobial Studies of the Ethanolic Extract of the Stem Bark of Pentaclethra macrophylla (African Oil Bean Tree).  British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2(6): 283-289.
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